Thursday, June 23, 2005

A Couple Ideas

Larmay3

Hey folks! Here's some light reading I found interesting this morning.

The first piece is a compelling paper on astrophysics by a non-astrophysicist.

And the second is some groovy conjecture lifted from that fun doom/gloom economist over at http://urbansurvival.com/week.htm.



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I would welcome comment. This is not my professional field (I paintpaintings for a living,) so please treat the paper as an idea to beexplored rather than a finely honed theory. In particular, I am eager to learn if the neutrino idea is possible, - if there is enough data to 'build the picture'. Look forward to your messages,

Stephen.

CAN_GRAVITY_be_INDUCED?

Verifiable Observational Evidence
for A_Dynamic_Non-Space_Sun

by
Stephen_Goodfellow
1989 (1994 update - See 'Ring Effect' prediction.)

CONTENTS:

Abstract, Introduction, Non Space, Plasma, Observational Evidence;
(Neutrinos, Sunspots, Helioseismology), A Dynamic Non Space Sun,
Neutrino Ring Effect Verification, (Data correlation, Feasibility)
Conclusion, Suggested Reading, Credits, References.

ABSTRACT
Gravity can be induced without a corresponding quantity of mass. This
phenomenon is brought about by a plasma in a magnetically unified state.
Our Sun is such a phenomenon in that it is a magnetically sustained
'non-space', an absolute vacuum held in place by the photospheric plasma
shell.
Specific neutrino observations will verify this hypothesis.

INTRODUCTION
How does the Sun shine? The Victorians believed the Sun was a burning
ball of coal. In the atomic era it is thought to be a nuclear furnace.
Each age reflects its own successful power source and attributes it to
the radiating phenomena in the heavens.

Hydrogen/fusion core theories rest on the assumption that the mutual
gravitational attraction of the Sun's individual atoms override all
other acting forces, thereby causing the Sun's mass to contract. This in
turn creates the internal pressures which inaugurate nuclear fusion
within the Sun's core.

The scenario appears to be reasonably logical at a glance, but when
viewed in the light of available observations, it becomes obvious that
the reasoning upon which the hydrogen/fusion core theories rest is
unsound.

These are some of the numerous inconsistencies that emerge:
Where are the abundant neutrinos that are supposed to radiate from our
sun's core?
Why does the neutrino count drop during sunspot activity?
How does the Sun transfer heat to the Corona without violating the Laws
of thermodynamics?
Why are sunspot depressions lower in temperature and luminosity instead
of the other way round?
If the Sun is a contracted ball of gas, why is its rotation rate so
slow?
How can solar oscillations travel from a violent nuclear core, up
through its inhomogeneous body and still retain precise geometrical
configurations by the time they reach the photosphere?
These are some of the many observational facts that the core models are
at odds with.

NON SPACE
Since this paper is chiefly concerned with the verification of
gravitational induction, only a brief summarization of 'Non Space' will
be presented here.

On a rudimentary level, non-space behavior can be compared to a vortex,
which is a 'low energy' example of this phenomenon.
Milk added to a stirred cup of coffee outlines a vortex, which consists
of a high pressure exterior and a low pressure center. The vortex
behaves in a manner identical to that of the planets orbiting the Sun,
in that both phenomena obey Kepler's Second Law of Planetary Motion(1).
Objects placed closer to the center of the vortex orbit at a greater
speed than objects further out from the center, in accordance with
Kepler's Laws. The depression in the center of the fluid is thus a
relative absence of matter producing an effect characteristic of
gravity.

No observable space in the universe is a vacuum.(2)
It is notable that most dictionaries describe a vacuum as: " A space
devoid of matter." This definition is no longer sufficient description
of a vacuum, since it appears that all known space contains some measure
of mass/energy. Perhaps a more accurate description would be: " A vacuum
is a volume devoid of space."

Since a higher pressure attempts to nullify a lower pressure, a
hypothetical volume of absolute vacuum (non-space) will attract space.

Non-space is an absolute vacuum which induces gravity. This causes the
exterior mass/energy space to gravitationally implode upon non-space.
Any given volume of non-space has a temperature of absolute zero and is
without time.

I believe that a magnetic field can exist in non-space, because it is a
manifestation of of mass/energy, but is not mass/energy in itself.
In the following chapter I shall discuss how Non-space can be brought
about by high energy plasmas in magnetically unified configurations.

PLASMA
To understand how non-space is possible, it is important to consider the
rudiments of plasma behavior.
It was not long ago that physics classified matter into only three
states: Solid, Liquid, and Gas.

Fairly recently (1960's) was it realized that a gas heated to a very
high temperature does not obey the law of gasses; it displays a behavior
unique to its own nature.(3) So different is this state from a regular
gas that it has been classified as a fourth state of matter: a
plasma.(4)

Because all stars consist of this super-hot gas, a large portion of the
known universe exists in a plasma state, a condition of matter that
scientists have only recently begun to understand.(5)

Put simply, plasma is a super-hot gas in which electrons are stripped
away from protons. When placed in the vicinity of a magnetic field,
particles of like polarity interact with, and reinforce the field.
The magnetic force is 1 X 10 to the 39times stronger than the
gravitational force.(6)

The observation that plasmas align and reinforce magnetic fields is at
odds with the fusion/core theories which rest on the assumption that the
mutual gravitational attraction of the Sun's individual atoms override
all other acting forces.

However, the Sun consists of super hot gas, a plasma. If the Sun's
plasma particles mutually interact within a unifying magnetic field,
then it is the Sun's magnetic field and its associated particles that
dominate, not the gravitational contraction of the Sun's mass.
It occurs to me that the disparity between plasma behavior and the
gravitational solar core theory is understandable; the fusion/core
models originated before the nature of plasma configurations were
understood.

Fusion/core reasoning was founded on classical gravitational arguments.
These are incomplete and invalid in a plasma universe.

The following discussion is a thumbnail rendition of how non-space can
be possible in a plasma universe. However, the specific mechanism I
propose here is rudimentary and speculative. It is not crucial to the
overall concept:
Laboratory plasma configurations are truly astounding; they exhibit
behavior bordering on the incredible.
Plasmas which are shot through a plasma gun ( a magnetic field ) and
into a vacuum tube display well defined structures. Unfortunately,
because of the speed (120 miles per second,) with which the plasma makes
its way down the vacuum tube, photos reveal only a glimmering of the
complexity that can be attributed to plasma structure.
Plasma structure can evolve into a helical flow composed of two
separate streams, one consisting of electrons and the other of protons.
The structure maintains a stable shape that can best be described as a
cross between a smoke ring and a coiled spring turned in on itself.(7)
When considering induced gravity, it is significant that electrons and
protons can organize into separate camps, because like particles of the
same charge repel one another.

It is my contention that when plasma particles of the same charge
interact within a unified magnetic field, they fly apart leaving non-
space in their wake. The 'nothing' left behind is a rip in the fabric of
mass/energy/space and gravity is induced without a corresponding
quantity of mass.
In this connection, it is interesting to note that the most advanced
vacuum chambers employ ions - plasma electrons - to sweep the chamber
clear of residual atmosphere.
Nonetheless, the comparison is crude; the best vacuum chambers can
sustain a space fabric which is a 'foggy' 50,000 atoms per cubic
centimeter, a far cry from an absolute vacuum.

OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE
Neutrinos
1) Dr. Raymond Davis of the Brookhaven National Laboratory has been
monitoring the emanation of neutrons from the Sun since 1967, and he has
demonstrated that the flow of these neutrinos amounts to less than 1/3
of the amount anticipated by the current hydrogen fusion core
theories.(8)

The deficiency in the neutrino count may be accounted for as follows.:
Neutrinos originate from, or near, the Sun's surface. Since neither mass
nor radiation can travel through the Sun's non-space interior, only the
neutrinos produced on the side of the Sun facing us reach the Earth.
Those neutrinos originating from the opposite side of the Sun cannot
penetrate the Sun's non-space interior and so escape the Earth based
observer.

2) When sunspots occur on the Sun's photosphere, the neutrino count drops.

Neutrinos have little or no charge and so cannot be significantly affected by the magnetic field of sunspots on the Sun's surface. If neutrinos originate from the Sun's core and travel outwards, then sunspots on the photospheric surface should have no effect on the neutrinos. These subatomic particles should pass to the observer unimpeded, yet the neutrino count is diminished during sunspot activity.(9)

Why? I suggest that neutrinos originate near the Sun's photospheric surface. Within sunspots there is decreased temperature and luminosity. Consequently, there is less fusion and therefore a likelihood of a drop in neutrino production; hence a decrease of neutrinos during sunspot activity.

Sunspots
Sunspots are depressions in the Sun's photospheric surface.(10) If the interior of a sunspot is closer to the Sun's supposedly active core, why does it get cooler and darker instead of hotter and brighter in these areas?
I suggest that the temperature and luminosity gradient drop with proximity to the non-space solar interior.

Helioseismology
A whole new science has recently sprung up called Helioseismology. It
can be observed that the Sun vibrates, rather like a bell. It is
presently believed that solar resonances are propagated acoustically
from the Sun's core.(11)

But is this so?
Solar oscillations came as a complete surprise to solar theorists
because one does not usually associate structures that get denser
towards their center as good candidates for effective oscillators.
Hollow structures, such as bells are good oscillators; so too is the
plasma shell of a non-space Sun.

A core sun makes for an inefficient oscillator: how would solar
oscillations travel from a violent nuclear core, up through a somewhat
inhomogeneous body and still retain precise geometrical configurations
by the time they reach the photosphere?

We know from studying the powerful magnetic fields that erupt from
sunspot depressions, that the Sun is capable of propagating interior
magnetic fields reaching thousands of gauss.(12)
I suggest that stable geometrical oscillations occur because the sun's
interior magnetic field causes the Sun's exterior plasma shell to
vibrate on its 'surface', like the oscillations produced by an acoustic
speaker.

A blind-folded person would be hard pressed to tell whether he is being
addressed directly or via a speaker. The same is true for
Helioseismology; the observer is blind to the interior and so the
information is interpreted in the light of present concepts of solar
theory.

Helioseismologists have discovered a condition in the Sun's shallower layers which is at variance with conventional core models: Through frequency splittings resulting from the Sun's rotation, it is observed that the rotation actually decreases with depth. It is hard for any core theory to come to terms with this lack of angular momentum.(13) However, this observation is in tune with a non-space sun; if the vacuum boundary upon which the photosphere rests has the strongest gravitational potential, layers directly below the photosphere would be even more constrained by the Sun's gravitational field and move slower.

A DYNAMIC 'NON-SPACE' SUN
Imagine a rotating gaseous giant, perhaps a little bigger than Jupiter. The gravitational sum of its mass causes intense pressure and so generates atomic fusion at its center. ( Just like the conventional hydrogen/fusion core model.)
The fusion reaction is matter in a plasma state. Rotation creates a dynamo effect producing a magnetic field which unifies the plasma, which in turn strengthens the field. In this state, protons and electrons are forced into like camps, where they repel one another. The proto-Sun undergoes a transformation as its mass exspands into a plasma shell.
However, the plasma can only expand outwards a finite distance, because it has left non-space in its wake. The attraction of mass/energy space towards non space causes a gravitational implosion. The plasma has nowhere to go. It cannot go further inwards, because of the repulsive magnetic field; nor can it expand outwards, due to the gravity holding it back.
The solar hydrogen shell is under intense pressure at the vacuum boundary and this causes fusion reactions. This released energy maintains the plasma. Again, electrons are stripped from protons and the cycle repeats, thereby maintaining the Sun's radiation.

Let us now review the cycle:
1)A rotating primordial proto sun with strong gravitational compression in its core.
2) Pressure inaugurates nuclear fusion.
3) Plasma is created. The dynamo effect of the rotating proto-Sun supplies a unifying magnetic field for the plasma.
4) Stripped Electrons and protons form into camps of like particles.
5) Magnetic repulsion occurs. ( Outward flow of plasma )
6) The proto sun expands.
7) Outward flow leaves non space in it's wake; induced gravitational attraction is brought about, restraining the further outward flow of matter.
8) Magnetic repulsion and Induced gravitational attraction brings the solar shell into equilibrium.
9) The Sun's photospheric shell is heated under pressure from magnetic plasma repulsion and induced gravitational attraction.
10) The sequence then repeats, 2), 4), 5), 7), 8), 9), 10), and back to 2).
1) and 6) are not repeated because the 'solid' proto-Sun has expanded into a shell, maintaining it's equilibrium in this configuration.

This concept is in harmony with the conservation of angular momentum, in that it accounts for the relatively slow rotation of our Sun. Jupiter, the fifth planet from the Sun, has by far the greatest portion of angular momentum of the Solar System.
If the Sun contracted from a cloud of hydrogen and essentially remained so ( as the core theories would have it,) then one would expect the center to rotate the fastest, just as a spinning ice skater will rotate faster if she draws her arms into her side. Yet the Sun completes only one rotation every 28-30 days. Jupiter rotates once in less than eight hours.

The non space scenario suggests that the early proto-Sun's spin was considerable while it was a dense ball of mass, but as it inaugurated nuclear fusion and expanded into a thin shell of plasma, it lost its angular momentum. Like an ice skater spreading her arms out and slowing down, the Sun's rotation is reduced.(14)

NEUTRINO RING EFFECT VARIFICATION
For this solar model to work, it requires that absolutely no mass nor radiation can travel through an absolute vacuum (non-space). If the the Sun's interior is impervious to neutrino penetration, it follows that any neutrinos issuing from the Sun can only come from the surrounding shell of matter.
Since neutrino production on that side of the Sun facing away from us does not penetrate the Sun, the observer sees only neutrinos from that half of the Solar disk which faces the observer.
Because of the Sun's spherical curvature, its horison, or limb, would appear to be the source of highest neutrino production. Thus, an observer capable of 'seeing' neutrinos, would look at the Sun and see a Ring Effect.

When neutrinos collide with atomic nuclei, the scattering pattern from the collision can determine the angle of neutrino approach. It is therefore possible to determine the source of a given neutrino and distinguish it from other neutrinos. In this manner, it would be possible to build a neutrino 'photograph' of the Sun. This would be very desirable, because it would determine the source of solar energy production.

If the majority of the neutrinos arrive from the core of the Sun, then the Hydrogen/Fusion/Core theories are on the right track.
This will not be so.
I predict that the Ring Effect along the lines I have described will be observed, because the Sun's energy production is exterior to the Sun.

Feasibility of data gathering We are entering an era of neutrino detector construction; USA, Russia, Italy, Japan and Australia have, or are in the process of building, neutrino detectors. I am confident that with the increased neutrino data, the results from the above-mentioned program can be determined in the near future.

CONCLUSION
This is the 1992 edition of this paper, the earliest version having been written in 1979. As new data has come to light and improvements for varification occour to me, I have gone about modifying and revising. Since the origional, I have released five modifications of the paper to friends and aquaintences, this being the sixth. Throughout the revisions I have never vered from the origional consept of the paper, namely that the interior of the Sun is non space, and that this non space induces gravity.
The chief change in this edition is the elimination of a somewhat more cumbersome means of varifying that the Sun has a non space interior replacing that abstract with what I believe to be a simpler and more elequent "Ring Effect" observation.( p.8.)

According to Dr. Anthony Peratt, who is involved in plasma research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Nobel Prize laureate Hannes Alfven believes that gravity results when electromagnetic forces neutralize each other. Dr. Anthony Peratt also informs me that no one, to his knowledge, has pursued plasma/gravity experiments to date.
It is my fervent hope that plasma physicists will perform plasma/gravity experiments in the near future.

In the 'Suggested Reading' section, I make reference to H.E. Puthoff, who puts forward tantalizing evidence for the "Casimir Effect", a phenomenon where vacuum induces gravity. I learned of H.E. Puthoff's papers and articles in 1990, and it is indeed striking ( and gratifying) to find ones own research paralleled.

I suspect that most astrophysicists will initially be reluctant to accept the gravitationally inducing 'non space' concept and I can empathize with that skepticism and reluctance which researchers may feel when asked to embrace such a radical idea. Indeed, if I were reading a paper such as this written by someone else, I would probably have strong reservations myself.
Remember however, that the foundation of the non-space model does not rest upon speculation or conjecture; on the contrary, the hypothesis depends on specific, and achievable means of observational confirmation.

If you have any questions or comments, please direct them to me at:
146 Farrand Park
Highland Park
MI 48203
Phone: (313) 883 4827
E-Mail: llrowla@cms.wayne.edu

SUGGESTED READING
"The Plasma Universe" by Anthony L. Peratt, Sky & Telescope Feb. 1992

"The role of particle beams and electrical currents in the plasma universe" by Anthony L. Peratt; Laser and Particle beams (1988) vol. 6, part 3, pp. 471-491.

"Double Layers and Circuits in Astrophysics" by Hannes Alfven; IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vo. PS-14, No. 6, December 1986

"Evolution of the Plasma Universe: I. Double Radio Galaxies, Quasars, and Extragalactic Jets." by Anthony L. Peratt, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. PS-14, No. 6, december 1986.

"Evolution of the Plasma Universe: II. The Formation of Systems of Galaxies." by A. L. Peratt IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. PS-14 No. 6, Dec. 1986.

"Ground state of hydrogen is a zero-point-fluctuation-determined state" by H.E. Puthoff, Physical Review D, Particles and Fields, Vol. 35 No.10, May 15th 1987, published by The American Physical Society.

"Gravity as a zero-point-fluctuation force" by H.E. Puthoff, Physical Review, Vol. 39 No.5, 1st of March, 1989, published by the American Physical Society.

"Source of vacuum electromagnetic zero-point energy" by H.E. Puthoff, Physical Review Vol.40, No.9, 1st Nov., 1989, published by the American Physical Society.

"How the Solar System Was Formed" by Daniel R. Wells; 21st Century, July-August issue, 1988.

http://sci-phys-plasma.caeds.eng.uml.edu/1994/11-94-005.htm
"""

_______
(and the next read...)


mgg_10

"""
Crack in the Earth

I don't want to be an alarmist, but let's review a couple of facts. Whether you have confidence in the web bot technology, which scans huge portions of the public internet and looks for linguistic shift changes in order to predict future events, you'll have to admit that the April 3, 2005 forecast about the "summer shakes" series of earthquakes has been pretty much right on. See http://www.halfpasthuman.com/ for the original work. What's more, we expect that the shakes are far from over.

Point two is that there's a growing body of scientific evidence that suggests that the Pacific Plate is trying to break loose from its moorings to earth at a massive level. That's specifically what has been behind the recent string of quakes around the Pacific ring of fire including the 7+ activity off northern California and Chile in the past 10 days, or so. Moreover, the recent string of smaller quakes in the vicinity of the New Madrid in the mid section of the US is also worrisome.

What a few scientists are now proposing is that the earth is growing and they have developed something called the "fusion core" model. In a nutshell, it suggests that just as the Sun is powered by an ongoing fusion reaction (involving hydrogen and helium) the smaller planets are kept "warm" by ongoing fusion that is fed by waves of intergalactic high energy particles. While it's a bit much to swallow in one bite, the thinking is that just like matter can be turned into energy under Einstein's E=mc² law, just the opposite kind of reaction can take place over time on a planet which wanders around space sucking up high energy particle blasts from all over, not to mention the radiation from the sun. The Einstein reaction flips to become E/c²=m (energy divided by the constant speed of light squared creates a little bit of mass. Simplified even further, the atomic bomb reaction may be a two-way street.

OK, with that to go with the Wheaties as this morning's pop science rap, plug in the notion that if (and it's a big IF) this model of matter creation at the core of the earth is correct. then over geologic time scales, the earth ought to be getting bigger. Now, to support the notion, the researchers into this theory have said "Hey! Look how all the continents fit together if you shrink the world's size - just like you were letting air out of a balloon!" Sure enough, there's something to it.

The other thing that comes into focus is that if the plasma/fusion core of the earth model holds any credence, they we would expect to see some evidence that the earth is cracking in a huge way.

Is is possible that the present spate of EQ activity around the world is part of a normal growth spurt? Maybe.

Whether it is, or isn't, when we see stories developing that support the model, no matter how small they may be to mainstream media (MSM) which is seemingly hypnotized by news which we call Grand Media Distractions (GMD's), we feel an obligation to bring them to your attention because a mega earthquake can really ruin your day.

Done with the foreplay and background; off to check of the huge "Crack in the Earth Story" out of Texas this morning. Here, we read that a huge crack in the earth 30- feet deep or more has developed around halfway between Albuquerque and Oklahoma City, which would put it just east of Amarillo in north central Texas. When you look at such cracks develop, you wonder, are those fringe scientist folks on to something?

Not that we worry about such things, but it is 399 miles northwest from our ranch and might be something to check out on our way back there on our next trip east from Shaker Town. It's certainly something to think about when the next round of quakes shows up in a few days...if it does.
""""

that does it for this post,
thanks for stopping by

catchballyouinfuture

1 comment:

hippie chick said...

I thought you saved such lovely, optomistic and light reading for Monday morning posts...

Although you might make a believer out of this skeptic yet...